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Alli Moore

Alli Moore

Flash Point

Of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture in air.


Rock that is projected outside the blast clearance zone or outside the site limits must be classed as flyrock.

flyrock in house

Factors affecting

Jointed and fissured rocks are more prone to fly rock than strong homogeneous rock. But massive rocks require more charge to achieve good fragmentation and hence cause more problems.


Explosives having more Bubble energy throw out more fly rock than the ones where strain energy dominates.

Blast Design

Blasting parameters like burden, spacing, charge per hole, stemming, and delay interval play an important role in the throw of the blast. Burden should be selected to take into account the crater effect where in rocks get thrown out from cavities or weak zones in the bench. There should also be adequate delay between rows of holes to allow room for the rock to swell and displace previously blasted material.

The primary sources of flyrock are face bursting, rifling and cratering.

flyrock sources 1

Foreign Bodies (Tramp Material)

Foreign Bodies (Also known as Tramp Material) not intended to be present in a process (such as bolts, nuts, gravel, etc), that can have an adverse effect on the process and may cause an undesired event or deviation from the design intent.


The size distribution of material left in the muck pile after the blast.
An increase in fragmentation corresponds to a higher percentage of rock fragments passing through a particular aperture size.

Free End

A face or void aligned at the end of the rows of the blast.
The free end provides holes on the end of the rows with relief in two directions, to the face and to the end.

Fuse Head

The combination of bridge wire and pyrotechnic substances which when subjected to electric current provides ignition to the detonator.

Fuse heads

Gas Bag

An inflatable bladder used to block off a blast hole and support explosives or stemming.

gas bag


Pertaining to heat energy extracted from reservoirs in the earth’s interior.


Grams per metre. Common expression of core loading of detonating cords. (1 gm/m = 4.7 grains/foot).

Ground Vibration

Oscillatory movement of the ground caused by the passage of seismic waves.

Ground vibration is typically measured as a velocity of ground motion in millimeters per second using a seismograph.


A seismograph consists of a data recorder connected to a geophone. Geophones are devices that convert ground movement into voltage using a moving magnet and coil arrangement.





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Skip Manage Drill and Blast Operations 5 DAY MASTERCLASS