Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

Page:  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  ...  41  (Next)


(KG per Hole)

KG per hole may be calculated by:

Calculate column length

= (Bench height + Sub grade) x 1 / cosine angle - stemming

Calculate kg per meter

= pi() * diameter ^2 * density / 4000

Total kg per hole = column length * kg per meter

Download the spreadsheet to run this calculation

Entry link: (KG per Hole)


#12 strength

#12 strength and #8 strength refers to the base charge of a detonator.

Historically detonators were made in a range of strengths, #6 for underground coal (Carrick Detonators) and #8 for initiating gelatin dynamite. With the change to less sensitive explosives a stronger detonator was required so ICI / Orica made a  #8* which is equivalent to a #12 strength DYNO detonator.

There were also #2, #3, #4 detonators but these were for testing the sensitivity of explosives and were not used for blasting.

The modern surface delays with low energy base charges probably relate to a #1 strength detonator.


Entry link: #12 strength



1.1A is a hazard division for primary explosives.

1.1 Explosive with a mass explosion hazard.

A Primary Explosive

This applies to explosives like Lead Azide and Lead Styphnate

Explosives Class 1.1A often require special permission to ship and must be shipped wet.

Entry link: 1.1A


Adjusted Net Explosive Quantity (Adjusted NEQ)

The mass of TNT that would produce an equivalent explosive effect to the inventory under consideration.

Entry link: Adjusted Net Explosive Quantity (Adjusted NEQ)


The Australian Explosives Industry Safety Group (AEISG) publishes a number of Codes of Practice for the explosives industry including a code for Mobile Processing Units (MPU's).

Other codes are found at

Entry link: AEISG MPU Code


A mass of angular volcanic fragments united by heat.

silurian agglomerate

Entry link: Agglomerate

Air Blast

Vibration of the atmosphere due to the release of explosives energy.

The three main sources of airblast are rock release pulse, stemming release pulse and rock piston effect.

  1. Rock release is where the face bursts due to inadequate burden.
  2. Stemming release is due to rifling or cratering of the blast hole collar.
  3. Rock piston is the large, low frequency, movement of air driven by the movement and swelling of the blasted rock mass.
Entry link: Air Blast


ALANFO A mixture of ANFO and aluminium powder. Adding aluminium increases the strength. As aluminium is a fuel a reduced quantity of diesel is required.

Entry link: ALANFO

Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium Nitrate (AN), meeting the requirements of UN1942.

The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of ammonia with the chemical formula NH4NO3, is a white crystalline solid at room temperature and standard pressure. It is commonly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer, and it has also been used as an oxidizing agent in explosives, including improvised explosive devices. It is the main component of ANFO and emulsion explosives which account for over 80% explosives used in Australia.

AN used for ANFO manufacture is referred to as PPAN meaning Porous Prilled Ammonium Nitrate.

Prilled is the term for a small aggregate of a material, most often a dry sphere, formed from a melted liquid

Porous because the prills contain voids to soak up the diesel fuel.

AN Pic

Entry link: Ammonium Nitrate


Amperage or Amps provided by an electrical service is the flow rate of "electrical current" that is available. 

Basic Formulas Relate Voltage, Current (Amps), & Resistance (Ohms or Ω ), Watts

Voltage = Current x Resistance

Current = Voltage / Resistance

Resistance = Voltage / Current

Watts = Volts x Amp

Entry link: Amps

Page:  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  ...  41  (Next)