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Back Break

Ground broken beyond the design line of blast holes most recently detonated.


Overbreak on the right wall of a large underground excavation.

Entry link: Back Break

Ballistic Disk

Ballistic Discs provide a safe and effective way of remotely clearing hang ups and upstanding rill in draw points and stopes. When detonated a ballistic disc produces a large steel slug that is propelled at hypersonic velocity (2000-2600 m/s). The kinetic energy transferred on impact, up to 60 MegaJoules with the BD514, shatters the target area. As accurate aiming is paramount, provision for
a laser aiming attachment is fitted to all disc faces.
Ballistic Disc use in underground mining enables a true "non-stope entry" method of safely removing hang ups. Accordingly Ballistic Disc use is mandatory in several Australian underground mines. Ballistic Discs further aid safe underground operations as they permit the abortion of firing at any stage, and safe recovery of an aborted or misfired round.

AET Disk

Entry link: Ballistic Disk

Bell Wire

Insulated wires (usually of a lighter gauge than the firing cables) used between the detonator lead wires and the firing cables or for lengthening the lead wire of an electric detonator.

Entry link: Bell Wire

Bench Terms

Bench Terms

Entry link: Bench Terms

Bi-directional booster

A bi-directional booster is crimped onto detonating cord to increase the donor output of the cord.

The booster contains about 2 grams of either HMX or HNS explosives.

bi d booster 1

DNES Bi-dir boost

Entry link: Bi-directional booster

Blast Clearance Zone

The area around a blast that must be evacuated of personnel and equipment during the firing of a blast.

The clearance zone is identified on the firing plan which will also show blast guard positions and other information relevant to the firing.


Entry link: Blast Clearance Zone

Blast Controller

A person who may be appointed to handle the logistics of the clearance of the Blast Exclusion Zone including (but not limited to) the following:-

  • Removal / relocation and preparation of equipment currently within the Blast Exclusion Zone;
  • Confirming the position and location of the Blast guards;
  • Completing the clearance sweeps of the Blast Exclusion.

Zone once the guards are in place and the area secured.

Entry link: Blast Controller

Blast Guard

A blast guard is a person responsible for ensuring the blast clearance zone is evacuated prior to the firing of a blast.

The attached document provides detailed information on the practice of blast guarding.

blast guard cover

Entry link: Blast Guard

Blast Mat

A mat made of rope, rubber strips, polyethylene tube or similar material, placed over the area or materials being blasted to prevent the scattering of blast-generated debris.


Entry link: Blast Mat

Blast Plan

A blast plan, should include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Location of the proposed blasting.
  • Description of the proposed blasting.
  • Permits / licences required for the project.
  • Identification and position of the person responsible for the project including project safety and security.
  • Identification and position of person who has given approval to use explosives on the project.
  • Key appointments and responsibilities.
  • Shotfirer’s details.
  • Details of the risk management assessment.
  • Details of adjacent structures or services that influence the blast design.
  • Details of reports, drawings and records consulted.
  • Layout plan of the blast including drilling pattern and hole depths.
  • Detonation sequence / effective charge mass per delay (MIC) / powder factor.
  • Type of explosive to be used and quantity required.
  • Method of initiation.
  • Type of firing equipment and procedures.
  • Drilling procedures.
  • Explosive loading and charging procedures.
  • Explosive storage and handling procedures.
  • Security procedures for the site and the blast, including explosives.
  • Environmental considerations for airblast overpressure, ground vibration.
  • Details of communication systems.
  • Warning procedures.
  • Traffic management plan.
  • Proposed dates and times of blasting.
  • Details of the exclusion zone.
  • Method of notification to owners and occupiers of structures, and providers of services adjacent to the blast.
  • Influence of weather.
  • Loading in poor light conditions or reduced visibility.
  • Cessation of explosive-related activities during electrical storms.
  • Misfire management system.
  • Post blast assessment and inspection procedures.
  • Provision for post-blast comments.
  • Signature spaces for the plan author, shotfirer and person who approves the plan.
Entry link: Blast Plan

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