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The cause of all accidental detonations:





Entry link: F.I.S.H.


Fireline is an Oil Field detonating cord from Dyno Nobel. There are a number of different types available with RDX, HMX and HNS coreloads depending on temperature requirements.

Entry link: Fireline

Firing Cable

Heavy duty insulated wires used to extend an electric blasting circuit to the firing point.

Entry link: Firing Cable

Firing Time

The time period during which a blast may be fired. Planned firing time will be communicated to any person who may be affected by the blast.
The actual firing time is after the clearance is completed (handover from blast controller to shotfirer) and all controls are in place to manage the safe initiation of the shot.

Entry link: Firing Time

Fixed Magazine

An explosives magazine constructed in accordance with AS 2187.1 in a manner which precludes relocation to another site.

fixed magazine

Entry link: Fixed Magazine

Flash Point

Of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture in air.

Entry link: Flash Point

Fluid Sensitive Detonator

A detonator that will not fire in the presence of a liquid. Used to prevent 'wet firing' of a perforation gun.

Fluid Sensitive Detonator

Entry link: Fluid Sensitive Detonator


Rock that is projected outside the blast clearance zone or outside the site limits must be classed as flyrock.

flyrock in house

Factors affecting

Jointed and fissured rocks are more prone to fly rock than strong homogeneous rock. But massive rocks require more charge to achieve good fragmentation and hence cause more problems.


Explosives having more Bubble energy throw out more fly rock than the ones where strain energy dominates.

Blast Design

Blasting parameters like burden, spacing, charge per hole, stemming, and delay interval play an important role in the throw of the blast. Burden should be selected to take into account the crater effect where in rocks get thrown out from cavities or weak zones in the bench. There should also be adequate delay between rows of holes to allow room for the rock to swell and displace previously blasted material.

The primary sources of flyrock are face bursting, rifling and cratering.

flyrock sources 1

Entry link: Flyrock

Foreign Bodies (Tramp Material)

Foreign Bodies (Also known as Tramp Material) not intended to be present in a process (such as bolts, nuts, gravel, etc), that can have an adverse effect on the process and may cause an undesired event or deviation from the design intent.

Entry link: Foreign Bodies (Tramp Material)

Formal Risk Assessment

A formal risk assessment will contain, as a minimum, the following components:

  • Step by step description of all the activities undertaken in the task
  • A list of the identified hazards or risks associated with each of the steps.
  • A description of the consequence of an adverse outcome.
  • An estimate of the liklihood or frequency, from never to always.
  • An estimated rating of the risk consequence, from insignificant to catastrophic.
  • An overall risk rating, Low, Moderate, High, Extreme, generally guided by a risk cube.
  • Existing and Addiitonal controls to manage the identified risks.
  • Signoff by the risk team



Example of completed Formal Risk Assessment.

risk cube

Example of Risk Cube to rate risk.

Entry link: Formal Risk Assessment

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