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In different layers.
Lead azide is highly sensitive and usually handled and stored under water in insulated rubber containers. It will explode after a fall of around 150 mm.
Lead Azide is a white to buff coloured granular substance although it is often mixed with graphite to reduce friction sensitivity making it dark gey to black in appearance
Lead Azide is the most common primary explosive used in detonators although Lead Styphnate has also been used.
The wires, usually paired, permanently attached to an electric detonator.
Lifter pipes are short lengths of poly pipe inserted into lifter holes immediately after drilling to prevent drill cuttings and mud from blocking them.
Lifter pipe is usually cut from 'blue stripe' poly pipe.
The mass of explosive in kilograms per linear metre charged in a blast hole of a given diameter.
The area under the direct control and authority of the shotfirer from the time charging of explosives begins until the area is declared safe.
Load or Charge rule define how holes are to be loaded based on the condition of the hole (depth, water, wet walls).
When applied to charge patterns, charge rules create hole specific load definitions describing all the explosives and inert decks and the in-hole initiation system for all holes in the charge pattern.
Charge rules are derived from charge standards. Local copies of charge rules are saved against charge patterns to prevent subsequent changes altering the charge detail.
Charge rules are drill diameter specific, this means that a charge pattern needs to have the same diameter blast hole.
Load, or Charge sheets define on a hole by hole basis how every individual hole in the blast pattern is to be loaded.
Long Period Delay
NONEL LP units are designed to provide in-hole delays for underground (non-coal) or special construction blasting applications that require long period delay times to improve relief (such as drift development, shaft raising/sinking, stope applications or tunnelling rounds). They are typically used with detonating cord.
LP detonators are designed to provide sufficient timing for blasted rock to be ejected from a parallel hole cut before the next hole fires.